The location of storage and collection points for solid waste collection depends on:
- access to the property
- physical characteristics of the property
- availability of waste management resources.
Access to the waste storage points for solid waste collection requires attention in planning and approval of building plans and design, particularly in towns and cities. In some countries, town planning and building regulation deals with this The design and construction of buildings require prior approval from the authorities responsible for waste management. Many countries lack such provision and it is difficult to organize satisfactory collection services.
Types of Solid Waste Collection
#1 Detached Dwellings
Block collection, kerbside/alley or door-to-door collection services are all practical for detached dwelling. The detached dwelling surrounded by a garden or a walled courtyard is suitable for door-to-door collection. In such dwellings, residents can placed their bins outside the house, and use of proper storage containers minimize the demand for frequent collection. In a tropical climate, however, frequent collection may be required to minimize odours.
Depending upon the type of collection vehicle used, a wide variety of containers, from small portable bins to roll-out containers for mechanized vehicles are used to store the waste. Here cost is the main governing factor for the selection of collection vehicles and methods. The use of bin bags increases productivity and improves the health of solid waste workers and residents, but there is possibility of spillage of waste materials if they are left for long at the kerbside or in the ally.
#2 Terraced Dwellings
As with detached dwellings, block collection, kerbside/alley or door-to-door collection are suitable solid waste collection services. If there is access to a backyard or a small walled courtyard in front of houses, then door-to-door collection may be suitable. A wide variety of containers, from small portable bins to roll-out containers suitable for mechanized collection vehicles, can be used to store the waste. Cost is the main governing factor for the selection of collection vehicles and methods.
#3 Low and Medium Rise Dwellings
Block collection, kerbside/alley or door-to-door collection can also be used in low-and medium-rise dwellings for solid waste collection. For example, apartment blocks which have balconies at the rear and can be reached by external staircase, door-to-door collection is possible if bins are kept on the rear balconies. Even in the absence of rear balconies, collection crews can go to the door of each apartment to collect waste bins or bags. Alternatively, a number of communal bins or containers may be placed at a convenient location for the collection of waste.
#4 High-rise Dwellings
In high-rise dwellings, the following waste handling and storage methods are commonly practiced in solid waste collection.
- waste generators are responsible for bringing their waste to a number of selected small bins or communal containers placed in a suitable location within their premises.
- building maintenance personnel or porters are responsible for bringing the waste to communal containers
- communal containers receive waste through waste chutes. In many buildings, particularly in industrialized countries, waste chutes are used in conjunction with large waste compactors to reduce waste volume.
Collection systems similar to the above kerbside/alley or communal collection methods can be practiced at high-rise dwellings.
#5 Commercial and Industrial Facilities
Kerbside/alley or communal collection methods can be practiced at commercial and industrial facilities. However, in an industrial setting, depending on the nature of waste, a separate collection may be required for specialized hazardous wastes such as asbestos.