The disposal of solid waste on land into water bodies has been widespread ever since populations settled and grew. But before the development of consumer-based societies and industrialisation, disposal of waste did not create a significant problem owing to the presence of a vast amount of land water bodies which could assimilate the waste very effectively. Industrialisation made it necessary to pay special attention to waste management.
Land disposal is generally considered to the final disposal option as it often receives residuals from other waste treatment options.
The land disposal method may be broadly categorised into:
- open dumping – uncontrolled land disposal
- controlled dumping- some measures are taken to minimise the risk to public health and the environment
- sanitary landfilling a well-engineered method of waste disposal.